Idea w poniewierce. The First Political Article of Roman Dmowski

Grzegorz Krzywiec

This is an at­tempt to exa­mi­ne the in­tel­lec­tu­al ro­ots of Ro­man Dmow­ski, one of the co­‑fo­un­ders of Na­tio­nal De­mo­cra­cy, the Po­lish ver­sion of in­te­gral na­tio­na­lism.

This ar­tic­les in­ve­sti­ga­tes the im­pact of con­cep­tions of fin­‑de -siècle the­ories on the who­le Po­lish in­de­pen­den­ce­‑orien­ted mo­ve­ments of the se­cond part of XIX Cen­tu­ry. Mul­ti­va­ria­te ana­ly­sis of do­cu­ments of the epoch de­mon­stra­te that an­ti­‑ma­te­ria­list, an­ti­‑po­si­ti­vist, and an­ti­‑li­be­ral sets of ide­as, the so­‑cal­led ‘ide­alist re­volt” mi­xed with so­cio­dar­wi­nism was a fun­da­men­tal part of the expe­rien­ce of the en­ti­re Po­lish ge­ne­ra­tion of the 1890s. Fur­ther­mo­re, the ap­pa­rent ef­fect of So­cial Da­rvi­nism on the who­le ge­ne­ra­tion – both left and ri­ght – was stron­ger than other fac­tors that scho­lars ha­ve ty­pi­cal­ly stres­sed be­fo­re, in­c­lu­ding po­si­ti­vist ide­as, an­ti­‑Rus­sian and an­ti­‑Ger­man sen­ti­ments. Such an in­ter­pre­ta­tion in the ca­se of young Dmow­ski’s world­‑view puts an em­pha­sis on the cru­cial ro­le play­ed by an­ti­‑so­cia­list be­liefs com­bi­ned with ra­cial the­ories ta­ken from We­stern po­li­ti­cal tra­di­tions. Yet, in Dmow­ski’s first po­li­ti­cal wri­tings, in his ho­li­stic re­vi­sion of En­li­gh­ten­ment tra­di­tion in the Po­lish na­tio­nal di­sco­ur­se, at the­ir cen­tre is ra­di­cal an­ti­‑Se­mi­tism.


Keywords: Dmowski · Krzywicki · national democracy · anti-semitism · nationalism

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