The Founding Project of Modernity or on the Last Man’s Provenience

Stanisław Łojek

Nie­tz­sche de­scri­bes his „last man” as a cre­atu­re who ga­ve up all ef­forts at over­co­ming him­self and, as a re­sult, re­tur­ned to ani­ma­li­ty (fo­und his com­ple­te and ul­ti­ma­te ha­pi­ness in sa­tis­fy­ing his bo­di­ly ne­eds and ple­asu­res). Ac­cor­ding to Karl Man­n­he­im, this kind of man has be­co­me do­mi­nant in our age – the age of the end of trans­cen­ding exi­stent re­ali­ty ide­olo­gy and uto­pia. In this pa­per I wo­uld li­ke to show that the con­di­tion of hu­man be­ing which is the cau­se of Nie­tz­sche’s and Man­n­he­im’s di­smay was the gre­atest dre­am of the most in­flu­en­tial thin­kers (F. Ba­con, De­scar­tes, Hob­bes, Loc­ke and others) who we­re the co­‑au­thors of the spe­ci­fic pro­ject of mo­der­ni­ty: the pro­ject of mo­dern scien­ce, mo­dern po­li­tics, mo­dern so­cie­ty, mo­dern sta­te an mo­dern… man. The last man, I ar­gue, is the end pro­duct of pro­gress which cul­mian­tes in the era that so­me call the end of hi­sto­ry.

Keywords: Nietzsche · Mannheim · end of history · modernity

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