The article presents refl ections on Europe by the Generation of ‘98 Spanish writers and thinkers (chiefl y Angel Ganivet, Miguel de Unamuno and Ramiro de Maeztu) who, in the face of defeat (1898) in the Spanish-American War, proclaimed a program of moral and cultural rebirth for Spain. Their ambivalent attitude towards Europe was rejected by José Ortega y Gasset and Salvador de Madariaga, both the most pro-European 20th century Spanish intellectuals. The problem of Spanish relation to Europe was also widely discussed after the Civil War under Franco regime. The evolution from initial isolation to a fuller integration with Europe of the regime and its conservative Catolic culture are also shown in the article.
The journal founded by Leszek Kołakowski, Bronisław Baczko and Jan Garewicz appears continuously since 1957.